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A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other liquid is heated. The fluid does not boil. (In North America, the word "furnace" is generally used if the purpose is not to boil the liquid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications,[1][2] including drinking water heating, central heating, boiler-based power generation, cooking, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not found in wetted parts of boilers due to stress and corrosion corrosion breaking.[3] However, ferritic stainless steel is often used in superheater sections that will not come in contact with boiling drinking water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western european "Pressure Equipment Directive" for creation of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4]
[url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler[/url]
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers easily. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (especially for vapor locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.

For much of the Victorian "age group of vapor", the only materials used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), mentioned for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice instead moved towards the utilization of metal, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be noted, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode far slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the durability of old wrought-iron boilers significantly more advanced than those of welded steel boilers.

Cast iron might be used for the heating system vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in a few countries, their purpose is to produce hot water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure vapor boilers.
Boiler Repairs Poplar, Isle of Dogs, Millwall, E14, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service [url=http://boiler-repairs-poplar.co.uk]Show more...[/url]
Energy
The foundation of heating for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric steam boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is used as a heat source for producing steam also, either directly (BWR) or, generally, in specialised temperature exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). High temperature recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other procedures such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two methods to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Direct method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more functional or even more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor circulation Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to drinking water in kcal/kg q= quantity of gas use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a following parameter like

Ultimate analysis of energy (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gas in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:

Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" where a fireplace heats a partially filled water box from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure steam generally, hardly above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early forerunner or type of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of the fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume still left above to support the steam (vapor space). This is the kind of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. Heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by water in order to keep up the temperatures of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the road of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by causing the gases reverse direction through another parallel pipe or a bundle of multiple tubes (two-pass or come back flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be studied along the edges and then under the boiler through flues (3-move boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel expands from the firebox and the hot gases go through a bundle of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating system surface compared to a single pipe and further enhances heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of vapor creation usually, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to the people of the gas or liquid variety.

Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this kind, pipes filled with water are arranged in the furnace in a number of possible configurations. Water tubes connect large drums Often, the low ones containing water and the top ones water and steam; in other situations, like a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally provides high vapor production rates, but less storage space capacity than the above. Water pipe boilers can be designed to exploit any warmth source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure drinking water/steam is contained within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler in which tubes are close collectively and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the kind of mono-tube steam generator where the tube is permanently filled with water. In a flash boiler, the tube is kept so hot that water feed is quickly flashed into vapor and superheated. Flash boilers experienced some use in cars in the 19th century which use continued in to the early 20th century. .

1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been mixed in the following manner: the firebox contains an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases go through a conventional firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed] but have met with little success far away.
Sectional boiler. Within a ensemble iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is included inside ensemble iron sections.[citation needed] These sections are assembled on site to make the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Technical engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation rules. For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with basic safety, security and design standards.[5]

Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while badly welded or riveted seams could open up, resulting in a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and high temperature around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising place are affected from range corrosion and formation. At best, this boosts energy costs and can result in poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also squirt scalding-hot vapor and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who weight the coal in to the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing a huge selection of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire structures.[6]

A boiler that has a loss of give food to water and is permitted to boil dry out can be extremely dangerous. If supply drinking water is sent in to the clear boiler then, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on connection with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by security vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor source lines that is bigger than the make-up drinking water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a strategy to assist in preventing this condition from taking place, and thereby reduce their insurance claims.[7][8]

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce vapor to be utilized at saturation heat; that is, saturated steam. Superheated steam boilers vaporize water and additional heat the steam in a superheater then. This provides steam at much higher temperature, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating place because the bigger steam temperatures requires a higher flue gas exhaust heat range.[citation needed] There are many ways to circumvent this issue, typically by giving an economizer that heats the give food to water, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. There are benefits to superheated vapor that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its utilization: gains in input temperatures to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There can also be useful limitations in using moist vapor, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to flee, the high temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous injury to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the extreme heat and sound from such a leak obviously indicates its presence.

Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The vapor piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The temperature in this field is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb heat by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing high temperature from a fluid. Some are a mixture of the two types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the temperature of the steam in the superheater goes up, the pressure of the steam will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9] Virtually all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a charged power plant.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of energy frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the fluid is liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid neither. There is no generation of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point of which steam bubbles can form. As the liquid expands through the turbine stages, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it does work turning the turbine which turns the power generator that power is eventually extracted. The fluid at that point may be a mixture of steam and liquid droplets as it passes in to the condenser. This results in slightly less gasoline use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product.
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Accessories
Boiler fittings and accessories
Pressuretrols to regulate the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have 2 or 3 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a security by setting the upper limit of vapor pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which handles when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, and for boilers equipped with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the quantity of fire.
Basic safety valve: It can be used to alleviate pressure and prevent possible explosion of the boiler.
Water level indicators: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler, also called a view glass, water measure or drinking water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They offer a way for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on the bottom of the boiler. As the name implies, this valve is usually located directly on the bottom of the boiler, and is occasionally opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to press these particulates out.
Continuous blowdown valve: This enables a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to prevent water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be transported over with the vapor - a condition known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water also.
Trycock: a kind of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a container. Most found on a drinking water boiler commonly.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the vapor can 'flash' safely and be found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown moves to drain.
Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when make-up water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash tank is normally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the heat range of the makeup water.
Hand openings: They are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installation of pipes and inspection of inner surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, some display screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is used to turn from the burner or shut down gasoline to the boiler to prevent it from working once the water runs below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without drinking water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.
Surface blowdown line: It provides a means for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible substances that tend to float on top of the water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is designed to circulate water back to the boiler after they have expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater range. This may be fitted to the medial side of the boiler, just below the water level, or to the top of the boiler.[10]
Top feed: In this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the top of the boiler. This may reduce boiler exhaustion caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays the water is quickly warmed which can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater pipes or bundles: A series of tubes or bundles of pipes in water drum or the steam drum designed to cool superheated steam, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out vapor.
Chemical injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main steam stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main vapor stop/check valve: It is used on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Energy oil system:energy oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
Name plate:
Registration plate:

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